The historical cultural complex of Sa’ad Abad is referred to as the complex of mansions and palaces, which is located in the valley of Darband, the northernmost and most peaceful area of Tehran, on an area of 300 hectares.
The complex has about 180 hectares of natural forest, springs, aqueducts, gardens, greenhouses, and streets. This mansion is located north of the Alborz Mountains, east of the Golab Darre Valley, west of Velenjak, and south of Tajrish and Jafarabad River pass from the middle of the courtyard.
The average annual temperature in this region is estimated at 12.9 degrees Celsius and is at an altitude of 1650 to 1800 meters above sea level.
During the first Pahlavi period, Sa’d Abad Gardens were flooded from the river Darband, but during the second Pahlavi, due to the water supply to the rivers half a day, and the lack of this amount of river water for irrigation throughout the complex, from twelve rows of qanats Old and newly used.
This place is one of the largest and most important collections of museums in Iran today with a collection of eighteen large and small palaces of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods.
The complex of Sa’ad Abad palaces includes:
the Shahond Palace (the current green museum palace), the White House (Palace of the Mellat Museum), the Special Palace (the former Natural History Museum, which is now in the possession of the Presidential Office), the Office of the Chancellor of the Palace of the Imperial Palace or the Black Palace (Museum of Fine Arts), Shams Pahlavi Palace (Anthropology Museum), Ashraf Pahlavi Palace (former dishes museum), Palace of the “Queen of Mother” (Presidential Building), Ahmad Reza Palace (Presidential Administration) Bahman Pahlavi Palace, son of Gholamreza Pahlavi (Education Center), Shahram Palace, son of Ashraf Pahlavi (military museum), Farideh Diba Palace (Presidential Office), House of Exile “Esmat Dolat Shahi” Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Farshchian Museum), the old and new palaces of Reza Pahlavi (Behzad and Dafineh Museum), Farahnaz Palace and Alireza, children of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Miameh Memorial Museum), Palace of Leila, daughter of Mohammad Reza Shah The Water Museum) and the Palace of the Chancellor’s Office (Water Museum).
In addition to the palaces and several other old buildings, there are other facilities such as poultry and dairy halls, greenhouses, swimming pools, springs, tennis courts, and bowling alley, cinema and an outdoor amphitheater.
The complex also has twelve qanats, each of which has a special title, and eight entrances for the king and court crossing were included in this collection.
The Saadabad complex has spent four historical periods of Qajar, Pahlavi and Pahlavi II, and after the Iranian Revolution. Sa’ad Abad was built during the Qajar period and the summer residence was the kings of this dynasty.
After the coup d’état of 1299 and its seizure by the Pahlavi dynasty, several monuments and mansions were built in it, covering 18 different palaces.
Each of the buildings has been the residence of one of the Pahlavi dynasties. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi also settled in this palace in the 1350s. The oldest palace in this complex was Ahmad Shahi Palace, which was completed in the early years of its reign. The newest palace in this complex is also Leila Pahlavi Palace, which belonged to the youngest daughter of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Different parts of Saad Abad collection:
Bahman Building (Bahman Palace)
This palace is one of the most beautiful buildings in the Pahlavi era, the home of Bahman, the son of Gholamreza Pahlavi. This building is adjacent to the Museum of Anthropology and is located next to the northern door of Darband.
This building, from 1382 onward, was assigned to the UNESCO Office in Iran, and Durrani was the training center for Saad Abad. Currently, the building has been changed to the Museum Management Office.
During Travel to Iran visiting the palaces of Saad Abad, by passing through the beautiful road that the plantain trees accompany to the end of your journey, the oldest palace of Saadabad, the green palace (Shahvand), with a 1203 square meter building of Reza Shah, one of the most beautiful royal palaces in Iran History It is located on a high point in the northwest of Saadabad.
According to the palace’s guide, the construction of this two-story building began in the year 1301 and ended in 1307. The map of this palace was designed by Professor Jafar Kashani and was used to decorate all Iranian artists and professors.
Carpets that are widespread in the rooms are an example of the ingenuity and elegance of Iranian artists. That is one of the masterpieces of Iran Attractions.
After passing through the entrance steps and passing from the four pillars of the Ivory Elephant, the Mirror Hall by Professor Jaffar Khan Memar attracts every viewer and pulled it unwittingly.
All the mirrors of this hall are decorated with gypsum flowers and are carpet with 70 meters and beautiful Mashhad carpet, which is the work of “Abdolmohammad Amuoghly”.
In this hall, one hand of the Koblen couch is a hand-made dose, related to the Qajar period. The middle table is a work of the French nation and belongs to the 18th century.
The silver plated curtain is decorated with a curtain that fits the hall window and is one of the artistic features of this section.
The features of this hall are the consistency of the middle part of the carpet, with a ceiling design that was woven by artists of Mashhad with special silk and fine texture for seven years (1301-1307 solar years).
Other valuable items of the palace include statues and sofas of the Louis XVI era, King of France, as well as two consoles of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The right side of the mirror room is two rooms, one of which is Reza Shah’s workroom. The wall of this room is up to 1 meter high and is decorated with artwork, which is one of the most beautiful works of the world.
On top of this engraving, a few paintings with oil and paint, such as paintings of the palaces of Isfahan, have been drawn. All show the Iranians’ talent that now they are part of Iran Tourism Attractions.
The other room on the right side of the waiting room was furnished at the time of Pahlavi II, and gold candlesticks, donated sculptures from other countries, and curtain hangings with roots of silver added to its beauty.
The left side of the salon is the Reza Shah’s bedroom with a mirror of the finesse. According to the guide, during the Reza Shah’s time, there was no bed and breakfast, because he slogged his eating and sleeping on the ground. Was. But at the time of Pahlavi II in 1350, the bedroom service was added to this room.
From the historical features of this palace, the signing of the Sa’ad Abad Treaty in 1316 was between Iran, Turkey, Iraq, and Afghanistan.
White House Palace (Mellat Palace)
Inside the interconnected layout, the whiteness of the palace building draws your attention. The White House was built by Reza Shah for the summer to receive his official guests, and at the time of Pahlavi II hosted special guests, including President-designer Jimmy Carter and French President Charles De Gaulle.
The palace is the largest palace in the palace complex of Sa’ad Abad, which has become known to the White House due to its white appearance.
In addition to being devoted to the official Pahlavi era, this building was considered the summer residence of the Shah and his wife Farah.
The palace consists of 54 different units, including 10 ceremonial halls, the largest of which is the Palais des Halles, which has a 220 m² flat dining room. The building of the palace, on the orders of Reza Shah, began in 1310 and was completed in 1315 solar year.
The palace map is the joint work of engineer Khorsandi and engineer Boris Russian. Elegant and elegant stucco inside the palace works by professors such as Gholamreza Pahlavan, Abdolkarim Sheikhan, Hossein Kashi and Reza Mullahek.
Marble rocks are made from mines in the cities of Yazd and Torbat Heydarieh, and the floor slabs were made by Professor Lorzadeh.
The exterior of the palace is an Iranian-Roman style, with four main pillars in the four corners and four lighters, around the central roof. The great paintings of oil paintings, completed by the master of Hussein Behzad and his students in the year 1320, with the theme of the stories of Shahnameh, which surround the norargh of the first floor.
The grand ceremonial halls of the palace are decorated in French aristocratic style. The most valuable works of this treasure are Nafisi carpets that show the taste and art of the weavers of Iranian artists.
The largest carpet of this palace is 145 square meters and has 140 rings, which is decorated with a tablecloth with the role of Shamsa and Qandil. On the ground floor, a series of pottery from Iran from the fourth millennium BC to the seventh century AH, as well as crystals of the Qajar period. Bluewoods are made of silk, satin, and tufted fabrics.
The chandeliers made by Italy, France, and Czechoslovakia are the lighting of the palace’s wider sections, the largest of which is 108 branches. The three chalets that illuminate the table on the first floor, as well as the desk on the table, belong to the French Queen Marie Antoinette.
The White House has been built on an area of 2164 square meters, in two floors, at an infrastructure of about 5000 square meters.
This palace is located on two floors. The first floor consists of a hallway in the middle and numerous rooms and a large hall around which one of the rooms was assigned to the office of Mohammad Reza Shah, and the billiard room and the waiting room of the army and state officials and the courtroom, including its other sections, Was.
The grand piano was commissioned by German artists on request of Nikolai II, the last Russian Tezar from the Romanov dynasty in the late 19th century, including antique items bought by the Pahlavi II family, which are placed on the White House, has it.
The second floor is also designed as the first floor. The walls of the rooms and headings are made up of rocks with natural roles that are carefully used to cut and polish them.
An important feature of this category is the painting of the ceiling, the work of Artist Hossein Behzad and derived from Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. This beautiful painting makes this place different from other Iran Attractions.
Negarestan Museum (Farah Pahlavi Palace)
This museum is located at the northernmost point of the Saadabad complex, with its unique and beautiful architecture.
The museum was set up with the aim of holding periodic exhibitions on March 12, 2006, with the traditional clothing show and dress design, and has since hosted numerous exhibitions.
Among the most important exhibitions held in this museum is the painting exhibition of oil paintings on the canvas of Reza Samadi, paintings on oil paintings on canvas and acrylics Mina Ghavidel and Nader Yasemi (son of Ali Akriasmi, prominent students of Kamal al-Mulk), works of art Professor Mostafa Besimi, paintings on oil paintings on the canvas by Tahereh Chizari and paintings by contemporary artist Khalil Tooub Hamidi.
Museum of Fine Arts (Black Palace, Office of the Minister of the Imperial Court)
One of the magnificent buildings of Sa’ad Abad complex is a building that has been located from 1346 to 1357 and has been used as a museum of fine arts since 1983.
The museum, which attracts many viewers during Iran Travelling every day, is located at the southernmost point of the Saadabad complex, with three floors of 3600 square meters.
The building of this mansion dates back to Reza Shah, and since it was used as black marble stones, extracted from the valley Abad Chalous mine, it is known as the Palace of Aswad (or the Black Palace).
Museum of the Arts of the United States (White House Greenhouse)
The Museum of Art, part of the Cultural Palace of the Museum of the Nation, was in the past the Farah Pahlavi Art Museum, which was used by her and her associates. The museum’s collection is bought or donated from around the world. Now it is one section of Iran History.
These works include pre-Islamic civilizations, Islamic period, the art of African black, India, Khurdur, Maya, and the works of contemporary Iranian art and the world.
Crow-guards: In the ancient art section of Iran, ceramic pottery, from the fourth millennium to the first millennium BC From Ismail Abad to Qazvin and the hills of the central plain of Iran – whose designs are inspired by praise and water flow.
Maya civilization: Before the discovery of America, in the year 1492, there were two centers of art and civilization in the United States, the Maya and the Inca civilization.
There are works of Maya civilizations in the Museum of Art, whose origins were attributed to the beginning of the first century before the Miliad.
African Art: The African art sector, which represents the process of the arts of the various civilizations of this continent, is a magical, traditional, religious, collective and applied arts that use stones, stones, ivory, pottery, and metal.
Contemporary Arts: In this section, works by Iranian contemporary Iranian painters such as Sohrab Sepehri, Faramarz Pilaram, Hossein Zendeh Rudi, Ardeshir Mohassess, Behjat Sadr, Mohammad Husseyni and the pieces made by Parviz Tanavoli, Jaza Tabatabai, Mehri Motamed and Isma’il Tavakoli (Mash Ismail ) Are located.
Contemporary Art in the World: There are valuable works from the 20th-century artists. Such as Herbert Baireyan Sobieski, Fernand LEGE, Marc Chagall and McAvoy.
Royal Album Museum and Sa’d Abad Documents
The museum’s building is located near the entrance door of Za’franiyah, between the Palace of Culture (the Museum of Fine Arts) and the White House (Multan Museum), which was previously the seat of the Imperial Imperial Guard.
This monument is a floor and a half. The ground floor has six rooms. After its conversion into a museum, its interior spaces are divided into the first Pahlavi, Pahlavi II, the Seals and Squares, the Hall of the Exhibition and the Museum’s Office.
Miniature Museum of Master Abkar (Palace of Leila Pahlavi)
The Clara Water Museum is located in the central part of Saadabad. The building was the summer residence of Leila Pahlavi, the newest building in the complex.
The building was opened in the year 1373, with the efforts of the Cultural Heritage Organization, on the occasion of the World Museum Day, as the Aquarium Miniature Museum.
Part of the museum is dedicated to the signs of it, which includes the works of anthropology, jewelry and cashmere fabrics. The other part relates to Lucky’s works, which expresses his diversity and interest in various Persian art courses.
Farshchian Museum (Queen’s Palace Esmat Dollahtshahi, wife of Reza Shah Pahlavi)
The museum, located in the central part of Saadabad, belongs to the Qajar period. The building of the museum in the past was the residence of Reza Shah and his fourth wife, Queen Esmat, who lived there during the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah’s brother and then her specialty chef, and later became the warehouse.
This building, after the reconstruction and restoration on October 26, 2001, was opened as a masterpiece of Farshchian Miniature Museum. The museum consists of 5 halls, and more than 70 works from this artist.
Military Museum (Shahram Palace)
The museum is located in the central part of Saadabad. The building, with a building of about 3,000 square meters, was built on two floors and one underground, on the orders of Reza Shah, in 1314 solar, for his second wife Taj al-Muluk.
The above-mentioned building was rebuilt from Sahel Abad’s engineering unit from 1971 to 1972 and was renamed Shahram, the great son of Ashraf Pahlavi, and became known as Shahram Palace. After the victory of the Iranian Revolution, the building turned into a military museum. The aforementioned collection was transferred to the Museum of the School of Civil Aviation in the year 1302, after the revolution, part of that collection was transferred to the current museum.
Water Museum (Office of the Chief of the Palace, Office of the Defense of the Army)
The museum is located in the central part of Saadabad. The museum’s building dates from the Qajar era and Pahlavi II and includes two main and secondary sections.
The sub-section of this building was a special office for Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, which was built at the time of Pahlavi II, which was used to receive couriers and visitors from the Shah. After the evacuation, the two buildings were handed over to Masters Kasraei (the military’s defense officer).
In this museum, water-related documents (such as the Mirab booklet, letterheads), water tools and instruments (such as blue cups, blue clocks, wells, and aqueducts) and various statues of waterologists and statues Mirab are kept.
The Sa’ad Abad Water Museum Administration is assigned to the National Iranian Water Treasury (affiliated to the Ministry of Energy).
Water treasure is a cultural institution that works to collect, preserve, display and preserve and restore the legacy of the ancestors in the water-related sectors, including extraction, transmission, distribution and exploitation, and the techniques employed therein.
The operation of the reconstruction and restoration of two buildings and landscaping began after the implementation of the plans by the National Iranian Water Treasury attached to the Ministry of Energy in 1997, and in 78 with the presence of the deputy mayor of the time and senior managers of the Ministry of Energy and other organizations Relevant opened.
Garden of the Museum
The Garden of Saadabad Museum has over 70 percent of the 110 hectares of complex, which, along with numerous historical monuments, has made Sa’adabad one of the most important attractions of tourism in Tehran.
The Garden of Saadabad Museum has been drawn from north to south along the Darband River. The Garden of Saadabad Museum has varied vegetation including natural forests, varied species of leaf and ornamental broadleaf.
Many of these ornamental, rare and non-indigenous species have been imported to Iran at different times and have been planted in this place, and in terms of scarcity, old age and beauty as a natural tourism attraction along with historic monuments.
Different types of ornamental trees are located irregularly in the vicinity of the main palaces in the broad grass cover, which in several seasons, especially the beautiful garden, multiples the garden.
Royal Museums Museum
The kitchen for Sadabad, with a total area of 800 square meters, is located in the center of the complex, next to the river Darband. The date of construction is at the time of the second Pahlavi.
The building has two floors of ground floor and basement, and it has been just a kitchen for the White House (Mellat). In 1354, a German company has changed all the kitchen facilities and is equipped with the most modern kitchen equipment.
The chefs who were busy in this building were Iranian and only for Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Farah and their children cooked food and most of them (domestic and foreign travel) were accompanied by them. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution for a long time, this place was used for the central warehouse of Saadabad.
After 32 years, the building was rebuilt and opened to the use of its past as the royal kitchen museum. The new museum has a main hall with 4 rooms with titles: a display room for written documents and a theme-related video, a cold room for the home, a kitchen room and a room for its dishes.
Royal Car Museum
The royal cars used by the Pahlavi family, which had been abandoned and abandoned since its collapse, were now exposed to the first royal museum after 31 years after being rebuilt. they take.
The museum includes cars like the Benz 600, Benz 300sl, Rolls-Royce-Cadillac and … each with its own special features and different applications, for example, an armored 600 kg with a weight of six and a half tons and having a hydraulic system Adjusting the height of the car is unique in its time and is part of the rare production of Mercedes-Benz.
Museum of Humorous Brothers
The Museum of Omidvar Brothers is located in the northwestern part of the Saadabad-Cultural-Historical Complex and is part of the Qajar period. The museum consists of 4 rooms with red brick bricks and beautiful gypsum panels, which has been the carriage of homes and resorts of Sorcheans.
The building after the Islamic Revolution was restored and restored in 2002, and the first Iranian tourists opened on the fifth of October 2003 in the tourism week with the efforts of the Cultural Heritage Organization.
The promising brothers, born in 1308 and Abdullah in 1311, were born in Tehran. He hoped he was very fond of the mountain climbing, he became a member of the Nirvary Club and climbed to the high peaks of different parts of Iran to observe and recognize the caveman’s tools.
Mountaineering and marching was the beginning of the thought of travel and tourism for these two brothers. Visiting the New Berlin bike rider who was planning to travel from Paris to Saigon, the Vietnamese capital, increased their interest in tourism. Also involved in cycling between towns and countries was the entertainment of two brothers.
After three years of study in 1333, Omidvar brothers, with much passion and love, began their journey to visit the world’s ignorant places from their hometown at around $ 90.
The rest of their travel expenses were provided by traveling exhibitions in different worlds, writing papers for world-renowned journals and holding lectures at the largest universities in the world.
In the first seven years of their journey, Isa and Abdullah traveled four continents with two motorcycles, a British one-wheel drive crankshaft of 500 cc, which their father bought for them, and spent the last three years in a car that the Citroën Company had donated to them.
They traveled. The result of their ten-year trip to ninety-nine countries from five continents, thousands of photographs, films, handicrafts from different parts of the world, and a large number of articles and scientific research.
The first film produced by Omidvar brothers is related to the Aboriginals (Australian Natives), whose life was unchanged in the same way as 2,500 years ago. This lackluster video was taken by a COOLKY ROLLICS camera with three different lenses that they bought from Sydney in Australia.
Another important piece of work was their sixteen-hour movie production. Eventually, the Omidvar brothers returned in 1943 from their ten-year journey, and the people familiar with them through the magazines saw the above-mentioned film, which was shown at the cinema for ten days.
These trips were conducted in order to investigate the lives of humans living in primitive and remote civilization in the present day, as well as the introduction of land to the people of the world.