Hormoz Island covers an area of 42 square kilometers (16 sq. mi). It is covered with sedimentary rock and layers of volcanic material on its surface. The highest point on the island is about 186m above sea level. Due to the lack of rainfall, the land and water are salty. Experts have made it possible for the Hara variety to grow in climatic conditions. Due to the lack of fresh water, Iranian engineers built a pipeline to bring water from the mainland.
The island, known as Organa to the ancient Greeks and Jarun in Islamic times, was named “Hormuz” from the important port city of Hormuz 60 km inland, once the center of a small principalities on either side of the strait. Hormuz pays homage to the Mongols and is an important source of maritime trade for the Ilkhanate. Around 1300, during a rebellion of his reign, its ruler decided to move his residence to the island to escape attacks from Mongol and Turkish groups in the inland. But this king later made peace with the Ilkhans. A new city was built on the northern tip of Jarun Island, called New Ormuz for a number of years to distinguish it from the old city on the mainland until it fell. Slowly, the name of the new town was also used for the island.
An island that is extremely arid and very hot during the summer months is not an ideal location for the capital of a principality as all supplies, including water, must be brought in from the mainland. However, its location afforded it a level of security that allowed it to be a major trading port for several centuries, more so as its competitors had been repeatedly ravaged by seas. acts of war and looting. In the 15th century, Hormuz was visited several times by a Chinese fleet commanded by Zheng He. The Portuguese explorer Afonso de Albuquerque captured the island in 1507 and it became part of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese built a fortress on the island, Fort de Notre-Dame de la Conception. In 1622, the island was taken from the Portuguese by a combined Anglo-Persian force. Shah Abbas I am not interested in maintaining the island as a commercial hub, but in the development of the neighboring mainland port of Bander Abbas. The city went into decline. Many of its inhabitants spent part of the year in the fields and orchards around old Hormuz on the mainland, inhabited only by fishermen. The island continues to export small amounts of rock salt and iron oxide flakes that are used as ballast for sailing ships. After Oman’s rule in the 19th century, it remained a sparsely populated fishing island and showed some development in the last years of the 20th century.