Hamedan is one of the oldest cities in Iran and is considered one of the oldest cities in the world. It may have been around 1100 BC. Occupied by Assyrians. Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian, says it was around 700 BC. The capital of Medes was. Hamedan has a lush mountain landscape at the foot of Mount Alban, 3,574 meters high in the Midwestern part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature and historic sites of this old town attract tourists to the city in the summer, about 360 km southwest of Tehran. The main symbols of the city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. City residents call their native language Persian.
According to Clifford Edmond Bosworth, “Hamadan is a very old city. It is possible, but unlikely, to be found in cuneiform around 1100 BC. Assyria says there was a King of Mediadiokes in the 7th century BC. The era of King Tigrato Piresar I. He built the city of Agbatana or Ecbatana. ” Hamedan was founded by the Medes and was the capital of the Central Empire. It then became one of the several capitals of the Achaemenid Empire. Hamadan is mentioned in the Bible book of Ezra, as the place where a scroll was found that gave permission to the Jews from King Daleios to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Its old name Ecbatana is used in the text of Ezra. It was one mile above sea level, so it was a good place to store leather documents.
During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, Hamadan was the capital of summer, and the residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthian dynasty, the Sassanid dynasty built a summer palace in Hamedan. The Battle of Nahavand took place in 633, and Hamedan fell into the hands of Muslim Arabs. During the Buyid dynasty, the city suffered a lot of damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuk Empire moved its capital from Baghdad to Hamedan. The city of Hamedan, destined to follow the rise and fall of the regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. The city prospered during the Safavid dynasty. Later, in the 18th century, Hamedan surrendered to the Ottoman Empire, but with the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamedan was freed from invaders and as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottoman Empire. It returned to Iran. Located on the Silk Road, Hamedan has enjoyed strong trade and commerce for centuries because it is located on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran. During World War I, the city was the setting for a fierce battle between Russia and the German-Turkish army. After the end of the war in 1918, before being returned to the Iranian government, it was occupied by both troops and ultimately by the British.