Damghan, town, northern Iran. It lies at an elevation of 3,900 feet (1,200 meters), just southeast of the Elburz Mountains on a large, barren gravel plain. It is on the road and railway between Tehran and Meshed. Possibly the oldest mosque in Iran, the Tarikh Khene (c. 9th century), and several tomb towers of the Seljuq period still stand in the town. Archaeological excavations at nearby Tape reveal occupation from prehistoric times through the Sasanian period. Damghan was an important town and capital of the medieval province of Qumis but was destroyed by Afghans in 1723. The town trades in pistachios and almonds. Pop. (2006) 59,300.
Damghan is the oldest and the most ancient city of the Parthian era survived in Iran. This city was the capital of Iran during the Parthian Empire. Due to its antiquity and tourist attractions, Damghan has many ancient monuments such as Tarikh Khene Mosque (former fire temple) and Tape Hesar historical mound. Cheshmeh Ali is a natural attraction close to this city. Damghan is also famous because of its vicinity to the city of hundred gates on the Silk Road.
This city was once called the city of one hundred gates (Hecatompylos in Greek), was the capital of the Parthian Empire. We can find the ancient name of Damghan (Qumis) in the inscription of Sargon II, the Assyrian king. The ancient name means the city with 100 gates.
The city maintained its importance until the first century AD. Damghan was once the winter capital of the Parthian Kings and had a good position until the last Sassanid king was murdered. During the reign of the Umayyad, Abbasid, Ṭahirid, Samanid, Sarbedaran and Deylamite dynasties, Damghan had a significant position for the emirs and the governors.
In the Seljuk period, the city was an important base for Ismailia followers. The Safavid, Afsharid and Zand kings were interested in this region and the city experienced many political events in this period.
During the reign of the Qajars, many Qajar princes were born in the city. During the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, Damghan was one of the centers of opposition to the government.
Tarikh Khene Mosque
This mosque is located in the southeast of Damghan city and is one of the magnificent and valuable temples of ancient Iran. It definitely makes one of the major tourist attractions of Damghan
The first building there was a fire temple inspired by the construction style of the Sassanid era. Then, it was changed into a mosque after the advent of Islam to Iran (7th century AD).
Tughrul Tower as well
This tower is located in the southern part of Mehmandoost Village near Damghan and is very similar to Tughrul Tower of Rey, south of Tehran. Some call it Mehmandoost Towers as well. The construction date of the tower is 1097 AD and belongs to the Seljuk period.
This historical site of Tape Hesar (literally means Hesar Mound) is located in the southern part of Damghan City. The historical site dates back to approximately 2000 to 2200 BC. Erich Friedrich Schmidt discovered the site in his explorations. Even if you do not call it an average tourist attraction of Damghan, it certainly is a historical attraction of the city.