During Traveling to Iran, one of the most beautiful natural places in the world is the Urmia lake.

Urmia Lake located in the northwest of Iran with an approximate area of ​​4810 km2 and around it is 463 km.

The length of the lake is about 130 to 140 kilometers and its width is between 15 and 40 kilometers. The altitude of the lake is 1274 m and its average depth is 5 to 6 m. The lake has 102 large and small islands. The total area of ​​the islands is 334 km2.

Islami islands, Kabudan, Arezoo, and Spiro are nine islands in terms of beauty and scope.

In terms of salt salts, lake water is ranked second after the “DeadSea” in Jordan

Its salting is famous and the only available biota is Artemia.

 History of the name of Urmia:

The name of this lake is now Urmia Lake, which is named after the city of Urumia, the capital of the west Azerbaijani province.

In the 1930s, during the reign of Reza Shah of Iran History, the lake was named after him in honor of Lake Rezaiah. After the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979, the name of the lake was returned to its former name, Lake Urmia. Turkish is called Urmo Gulu.

In the ancient Persian language, this lake is called chi-jest meaning brilliant (due to the mineral salts found on the beaches as crystals).

In the middle of this period, the lake is called Kaboodah (Kabudan).

In the Avesta and other Pahlavi books, the lake is sacred  because of the birthplace of Zoroastrian (Zoroastrian Prophet) in Ghazan (Gaznak-Shiz) around the Lake Urmia

The well-known fireplace named “AzarGashasb” has also been considered with all due respect and attention.

Hakim Ferdowsi, instead of the word “chichest”, and the “strabun” (of the Greek and the Moses, who are from the first and fifth century AD geographers) in Shahnameh his great book this lake is called Kapota (Kaboud), and the scholars of Islam, such as Massoudi, Ibn Havghel and Abu Riyhan, have mentioned it as Kaboodan.


One of the earliest references to Lake Uromiyeh in the inscriptions of the 9th century BC in Shlmensar III (monarchy between 858-824 BC) refers to two names in the Lake Urmia: Persua (meaning Persians or Persians) and Matai (or Mitany).

The lake was the kingdom of the Mana or Manaian kingdoms. The probable place of residence of the Mana’ians was on the Hasanlu hill in the south of the lake.

The Mana’ians were defeated by the group called Matian, and Iranian people were known as different sects called Scythians, Sermatians, or Kimri.

It is not clear that the people took their name from the lake or the name of the lake was taken from the people around it. But the ancient country was called Matian, which the Latin name of the lake has been taken from it.

In the last 500 years, the areas around the lake have been inhabited by Iranian people, including Azerbaijanis. In the last 500 years, the areas around the lake have been inhabited by Iranian people, including Azerbaijanis.


Lake Urmia is home to 212 species of birds, 41 reptile species, 7 species of amphibians, and 27 species of mammals, including Iranian yellow deer. So this feature makes it one of the most amazing places in Iran Tourism Attractions.

This biomass is internationally registered by UNESCO as a protected area. Iran’s environmental organization has identified most of its lake as a national park. Any Iran Tour can have this destination in its tourism program.

The lake has more than 100 small rocky islands where migratory birds are stopped, including flamingos, pylons, pods Chanok, Akras, lychees, duck pussies, nymphs, woodpeckers, and Noroozy chicken.

Because of the over-salinity of the lake, no fish live in this lake. However, Lake Urmia is one of the most important habitats of the Artemia harbor.

This hard skin plant is one of the main sources of feeding migratory birds, including flamingos.

In early 2013, the Center for Artemia Studies in Urmia announced that Artemia had extinct in this lake. This comment has been rejected by some other experts.

Lake Urmia National Park is one of the natural habitats of animals in Iran. The national park with an area of ​​46, 2600 hectares is also one of nine biosphere reserves in Iran.

The waters sinking to Lake Urmia:

Lake Urmia is the largest permanent water basin in Western Asia, northwest of Iran’s plateau. The waterfall of Urmia Lake is 51, 876 square kilometers. Equivalent to more than 3% of the total area of ​​Iran. The lake is comprised of a total of 60 rivers, 21 of which are permanent or seasonal, and 39 of them are periodic. Among these, Zarrineh Roud and Aji Cha’i are the main entrances to Lake Urmia.

This basin area is one of the most important centers of agriculture and animal husbandry in Iran, with its plains such as Orumieh, Tabriz, Bonab, Mahabad, Miandoab, Naghdeh, Salmas, Piranshahr, Azarshahr, and Oshnavieh.

Drying the lake

The lake has started drying since the mid-1380s and today it is in danger of drying completely. Surveying satellite imagery shows that in 2015, the lake lost 88 percent of its area (previous reports only noted the loss of 25 to 50 percent of the lake area). There are many reasons for drying the lake, including droughts, highway construction on the lake, and excessive use of water resources in the catchment area of ​​the lake. A recent study by several researchers in North America suggests that droughts only reduce rainfall by 5 percent in the lake watershed, and human factors include ambitious economic-water development projects along with a 15-kilometer highway construction on a lake with a small 1/2 Kilometer Lake Crisis has led to a crisis.

By 2012, more than 200 dams on the rivers in the catchment area of ​​the lake were in the ready-made stage, or the end of the design process. Fortunately by increasing the amount of rainfall and snowfall during the recent season the lake has got the better condition.

Change the color of the lake:

The beautiful Lake of Urmia after the good rainfall of the current year of 1397, with a significant surface area of ​​56 cm, increased the activity of the lake and led to a change in the color of the lake. Which drew the blue color of the lake in red and made it more beautiful.